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Searching for life out there...


Life on Earth evolved from a fairly rudimentary form for something as complex as we know today. Since prokaryotes being simpler to multicellular life and the more complex is the human being.

Undeniably, the evolution has made us the most complex product and more successful on this planet.

But this raises a question ... how would life evolve on other planets? It will be the same way?

Will actually be like us as depicted in the movies? Bipedal, four, five fingers, a head and the list goes on ... This is nonsense!!!

If we analyze our features one by one, we conclude that, in fact, we evolved in order to survive on our needs. The fact that we have a circulatory system is not a characteristic of Earth beings, but by the need to provide the best resources (O2, nutrients, immune system, etc.) to all corners of our multicellular system ... I mean, it could happen anywhere where multicelular life occurred. But the fact that we have an aerial tract within our thoracic cavity yes, is due to our dry environment in which we live (out of water). The fact that we have a dermis with certain characteristics, two eyes in our skull, the very physical and chemical composition of our bones, almost everything we have been designed to fit into our environment.
 The truth is that life can exist in many places where we, human beings, or to any earthly being wouldn't have survival skills.

It is normal that the bacteria have greater survival capacity in more demanding environment but they also replicate more frequently and, therefore, they adapt more quickly.

But the key question here is:
Are we looking for life in the right way?

This is:

  • Has life the need to evolve form a cell membrane composed of phospholipids?
  • Has life the need to evolve so it has to have DNA to coordinate their metabolic activities and transmit their characteristics through out the next generation?
  • And to obtain energy? Will be the way we know (glycolysis, cellular respiration, fermentation, oxidation of fatty acids, etc ...) the only one? And if there were completely different compounds? What would those metabolic processes be like?
  • For life to emerge, does it have to come up with the same organic molecules that it came here? Amino acids, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids ...

All these are answers that can not answered surely, but raises the question of
"After all, what leads to life occurs / is formed?"

If it's so simple, just by having a bunch of biomolecules in a solution inside a jar, covered with a good amount of radiation, magnetic field, a good layer of atmosphere and water, puf!!!
The truth is that is not so simple.

But we have good news !!! It has been able to obtain organic molecules from inorganic molecules in experimental way to prove the theory of Abiogenesis.

[Abiogenesis is the idea que life from nonlife Sepharose more than 3.5 billion years ago on Earth. Abiogenesis Proposes que the first life-forms generated were very simple and through a gradual process Became Increasingly complex.] (5)

It has been found that certain biomolecules occur spontaneously when certain conditions are fulfilled by the universe out!
Since clouds of alcohol and amino acids have been found in comets, such as in the mission Philae probe Comet 67P. (1, 2, 3)

Therefore, we can be a somewhat rested. Although other forms of life does not get out of the equation, we can always expect something similar to what we have on Earth as these molecules occur through out the universe and not just on Earth.

And you?
If you had a budget to look out for life beyond Earth (Solar System), would you search for a new form of life in non expected environments with a high chance of failure, but still with an unprecedented discovery; or would you go looking for similar surroundings in hopes of finding something familiar and already a somewhat expected?

Here is some information that you might open horizons:
"A new type of methane-based, oxygen-free life form que can metabolize and reproduce similar to life on Earth Has Been modeled by a team of Cornell University Researchers." (...)

"Their theorized cell membrane, composed of small organic nitrogen compounds and capable of Functioning in liquid methane temperatures of 292 degrees below zero" (...)

"... Discovered methane-ethane seas on Titan. Intrigued by the possibilities of methane-based life on Titan, and armed with a grant from the Templeton Foundation to study non-aqueous life ..." (...)

"Excited by the initial proof of concept, Clancy said the next step is to try and how Manda These cells would behave in the methane environment -. What might be the analogue to reproduction and metabolism in oxygen-free, methane-based cells" (4)

Is not that awesome ???

Here's Neil deGrasse Tyron's point of view:

(Must watch) 

See you next time !!!







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Is space colonization our moral obligation?

Is space colonization our moral obligation? - Video

This channel has the participation of many distinguished people in all branches of science.

This video responds to the question is the space colonization our moral obligation?

The truth is that our planet has limited resources and their balance is incredibly difficult to maintain. Although it is necessary to make a great effort to guarantee that our planet will have all the necessary resources for generations to come, sources of non-renewable energies are limited and their spare time is not greater than their time consumption.
Nevertheless, the human population grows exponentially and with increasing life expectancy will become unbearable guarantee supplies to the entire population, at least the way we are prepared.

Leaving aside global warming, species extinction or world peace, and provided that all these factors are controlled, we will face inevitable problems!
The truth is that of all the species on the planet are the only one with the idea that extinction is an imminent risk.

The solar system will have its end and therefore space missions within the solar system are essential if we believe that Humanity has going to exist for a very long period of time

Not wanting to give up our home, space exploration does not compromise any hope of life on Earth. And so it would be our responsibility transpose what Nature "built" for millions of years in such a unique way in the universe for eternity.

Since ever human being dream beyond their limits. Getting to know what is beyond the horizon is part of our nature. So I don't see how that space exploration can be seen as something unnecessary, luxurious or whimsical.
Why ignore what makes us different? The incessant desire to explore and find answers to our indeterminable questions!!!

A topic to think about!!! ;)


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Matter vs. Anti-matter

The Science Asylum - What makes anti matter so special?!


The theme escapes to the trend of what has been published. Physics! Year by year, more and more discoveries are made. Is it a new particle, a distant galaxy or a unexplained principle.
The theme "matter - antimatter" is relatively recent in view of the time we know the least well our Universe (notice I said "our Universe"). Curious will think, will already know minimally well ??? And leaving the part of phylosophysics and returning only to physical here we go !!!

First of all it should be noted that the antimatter term is just a convention. It's setting on the line of the real numbers to the positive is from right to left and the negative from left to right, or to define the north pole is at the top of the globe and the South Pole is down (by the way, the top and bottom part is a term that really can not be applied because the Universe has no reference or center).

There is nothing that gives the antimatter unique characteristics that no matter the "normal". The only peculiarity is that the load is exactly opposite !. Moreover, has the same mass, size, emit the same radiation and energy, as is everything!
While an atom of matter consists of a neutron, proton and electron a antimatter atom is constituted by an anti-proton, anti-neutron and a positron (as opposed to electron).

Matter is an energy state, and as such, when the Big Bang occured, it released all the energy that was contained, and it should have been createded equal amounts of matter and antimatter.
The only problem is that because they have exactly opposite charges when they touch contact teach other, they annihilate and release energy !!! Rather the spectrum of gamma rays:

As such, with equal amounts, the matter should not exist, and quoting Descartes, "I think, therefore I am", and after all, here we are and that's why we have a problem!
A good explanation for this battle that has been won by matter rather than the anti-matter might be behind the fact that there may be more matter than antimatter in the universe. Some say that for every 1 million anti-matter particles, there were 1 million and one particle of matter. But still, this goes against the principles of physics!

However, keep hopes !!! These two differ in one very important aspect !!! Radioactive decay !!! It has been tried and indeed antimatter has a considerably faster decay! Yet it is not enough to answer our questions ...

On the other hand, the author of video as well as other physicists argue that there is still an equal amount of matter and antimatter in the universe. And that perhaps some of the galaxies we observe are composed entirely of antimatter. Interesting idea!
However, if that happened, it would be expect that at least at the border of the galaxy / cluster / supercluster, the two types of matter meet and annihilate each other! What does not occur because there is no data of dubious emissions or sources of gamma radiation in space!

Finally, another issue that arises is whether the anti-matter has an opposite gravitational force than usual, which is would be to observe the attraction between two bodies.
In my opinion, not acknowledging any negative mass elements (or contrary to our, as they prefer to say), I do not see this happening.
On the other hand, if exists galaxies of antimatter, how do they exist if each body would repel other bodies?
If so, how does an antimatter atom would have the same properties as conventional matter? I know the strong nuclear forces are prevalent, however it would still interfere with the atomic radius, bonding radius, electron removal of energy, etc ... But do not let being a layman in physics, I am always ready to learn and if there are opinions that contradict my argument, I will be happy to hear them!

And you??? What do you think???


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Consciousness upload, is it possible???

Our nervous system has the same constitution in each one of us.
During our development, nerve cells multiply, but at a certain stage, apoptosis occurs. The goal is to preserve a certain number of neurons, but prefer quality over quantity. What distinguishes each human being are the nerve connections that we create throughout our lives. 

Different memories trigger different neurons circuits, and each circuit of these is unique to each one of us!

As I  suggested in my last post, AsapSCIENCE also talks in this video about the possibility of mapping our central nervous system and their connections - creating a "connectome" - and recreate it on the computer. This would allow a computer to make the artificial synapses interact with each other as they interact on us! As if it was a download of consciousness of myself.
In fact, to carry out this process, we would be faced with two precisely equal minds, a living and other artificial.
The film "Self /Less" exploits this fact with a small difference, in this case, a patient with a terminal cancer, transferred his mind from one body to another completely new and healthy, in order to extend his life time and life quality!
As much as this intrigue us we should not exalt. Our brain is extremely complex! Each neuron can establish connections with other neurons in the thousands or tens of thousands of other neurons! The synapses network is extremely wide and the variety of routes in which the electrical signal can go are huge!!!

Nevertheless, neuroscientists say that by the year 2045 will be possible to have the human connectome recreated.
This idea may seem ambitious, but let us remember that it was already possible to map the human genetic code!

However, re-create the connections we have in the nervous system does not make that copy another "I". We are, of course, the product of all the connections we have, but we adapt, mold and grow with time and therefore we are constantly creating new links with our experiences. Furthermore, our habits and routines can strengthen and weaken a particular route other. We are a constant product of what we live!

So I leave you the challenge if the upload of consciousness would not be enough to prolong our lives, what other way can you consider to do so?

See you in next time !!! ;)

Here are some other two videos that talk about the same subject:



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In this video, the vlogger Vsauce talks about conscience!

Videos for this vlogger in particular are particularly interesting for the way it talks about the topics and sometimes not the topic itself!

Here, he gives the example of hemispherectomies to think about.
This type of surgery involves the removal of a hemisphere when it completely, is responsible for epileptic focus and if they can not be controlled by drugs. Structures such as the thalamus, brain stem and basal ganglia remain intact.

It is performed in children before age 14 because this hemisphere may take over some functions that are missing by the removal of the previous one.

In this case I ask, then with approximately 50% of the initial brain mass, to what extent the entire state of consciousness remains unchanged? Is the consciousness state measurable? Why do not we live constantly 100% aware? Isn't that disturbing???

Vsauce proposes the following:
- What if, to the same brain, we remove one hemisphere and put it in a body and the other hemisphere in another body, to which the bodies belong to the original person? It really is an impossible question to answer since this was never tried and there are not theoretical arguments to justify any answer in concrete and honestly, seems impossible to stand life in that conditions!
By the other hand if you survive the hemispherectomy, wouldn't it be possible to do this?
But thinking about it is always a viable and safer option! The question remains, what is consciousness?

We are composed of the same material that the rest of the universe, or as Carl Sagan would say, "We are star stuff"

Living organisms have ownership of counteracting the second law of thermodynamics and expend energy by organizing their systems!
A mistery remains: what does the matter that we possess has to make us different, from the matter of non living organisms or inanimate objects?
Without physical property, consciousness is not palpable. We can not , in a living organism set the barrier that defines its conscience or not.

But one thing is certain, the state of consciousness allows us to live life to its fullest!

Frightening is the fact that our nervous system allow us to live a lie without we noticing it! Here aresome examples of those conditions:
  • Parkinson 
  • Anosognosia 
  • Anton - the Babinsky syndrome ( 1) 
  • Hemiespacial neglect syndrome ( 2 )

As such , live life consciously gains another matter. 

Can you imagine what it would be if all your nerve cells of your body , all your information was computed and stored? What if that computer was able to learn , respond and make decisions from YOUR information, would that be you? Could you live forever? The need to define what is consciousness in biological terms reveals a tremendous importance because the fields yet to explore, are infinite!


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Today I begin to write in my blog ! It is an interesting and demanding challenge that I intend to keep the appointment! 
Leptonics... Lepton belongs to the elementary particles of the universe.
Divided into different categories , we find the Lepton within the category of Fermions. Fermions are the " building blocks " for the creation of matter . In this category we find the Leptons and Bosons.

In this blog I intend to inform, disseminate , comment and arouse curiosity and critical thinking to all visitors .

In the various subjects of biology, chemistry, physics, health, psychology, technology, cosmology, astronomy, and others, I hope you can find here relief issues and gain new interests!

I hope that the diversity of themes will be a reason to suggest new interests to anyone . The beauty with which the issues are interrelated is brutal! Since the origin of the universe , its principles and its laws, the way we define the behavior of all particles and all the forces that interact with them, and how that confers the characteristics to what surrounds us!!! From our little point of view we can discuss all the issues, but we will always have limitations, which makes the pursuit of knowledge a challenge even more exciting! When and how we will break our own barriers, and when will you find a question that won't ever be answered? And why won't it be answered?

The truth is that throughout the history of mankind , many issues have already been debated and often against common sense , science won!

Since the transition from Geocentric model to the heliocentric (which is not the current but revealed a drastic change ) , the discovery of the cell as building blocks of life, from the theory of miasma to the germ theory, since the discovery of Newtonian physics for a completely revolutionary definition of Albert Einstein's space-time, to the discovery of as "counter intuitive" quantum physics to which Einstein criticized strongly ... well , we will never know what the next step .

Thank you so much, and see you on the next time!!!